Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Music ornaments

Ornaments or embellishment are musical flourishes that are not necessary to carry the overall line of the melody (or harmony), but serve instead to decorate or "ornament" that line. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a central note. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive to relatively little or even none. A very important function of the ornamentation in early and baroque keyboard music was as a way of creating a longer sustain of the note on a harpsichord, clavichord, or virginal , such instruments being unable to sustain a long note in the same manner as a pipe organ. 

Types of ornaments :
a. Trill
b. Mordent 
c. Turn
d. Appoggiature
e. Acciaccatura
f. Glissando

Trill :  Rapid alternation between an indicated note and the one above, also known as the shake.


Mordent : hought of as a rapid alternation between an indicated note, the note above (called the upper mordent, inverted mordent, or pralltriller) or below (called the lower mordentor mordent), and the indicated note again.

Upper and lower modent notation 1.png

Turn : A short figure consisting of the note above the one indicated, the note itself, the note below the one indicated, and the note itself again.

Turn notation.png

Appoggiatura : important melodically and often suspends the principal note by taking away the time-value of the appoggiatura prefixed to it. 

Apoggiatura notaton.png

Acciaccatura : as a shorter, less melodically significant, variant of the long appoggiatura, where the delay of the principal note is scarcely perceptible.

Acciaccatura notation.png

Glissando : s a slide from one note to another, signified by a wavy line connecting the two notes. 

Chopin and Beethoven


He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano".
Chopin was born in Zelazowa Wola a village in the Ducy of Warsaw, to a Polish mother and French-immigrant father.
For most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor health; he died in Paris in 1849 at the age of 39.

He is one of the most famous pianist and composer at Romantic Era. 
His two most famous songs are Fantasie Impromptu and Waltz in Db major.
The vast majority of Chopin's works are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concerto a few chamber pieces, and some songs.


Born in Bonn, then the capital of the Electorate of Cologne and part of the Holy Roman Empire, Beethoven moved to Vienna in his early 20s, studying with Joseph Hayden and quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. His hearing began to deteriorate in his late twenties, yet he continued to compose, conduct and perform, even after becoming completely deaf. 

He is one of the most famous composer, pianist, and conductor of orchestra at classical period which is from 1750 until 1827. 

His most famous songs are  : Moonlight Sonata, Ride of the Valkarie, Fur Elise, Pastoral Symphony, Ode to Joy, Symphony no.5 in C minor. 


Orchestra is divided into two kinds :
a. Symphony : between 80 - 100 people
b. Chamber : between 30 - 50 people

In orchestra, there are 4 major family which are :
a. String family
b. Woodwind family
c. Brass family
c. Percussion

String family :
. Violin
. Viola
. Cello
. Double bass
. Harp

Woodwind family :
. Piccolo
. Flute
. Oboe
. Clarinet
. Cor Anglais
. Bassoon
, Contra Basson

Brass family :
. Trumpet
. French horn
. Trombone
. Tuba

Percussion :
. Timpani
. Cymbals
. Bass drum, side drum
. Glockenspiel
. Castanent
. Triangle
. Tambourine
. Xylophone
. Chimes

Percussion can divided into two kinds :
a. Tune : with melody ( Timpani, Glockenspiel, etc )
b. Untune : Without melody ( Triangle, tambourine, etc )

Human voices

There are four major kinds of human voices which are Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass. Usually, we called those four as the SATB. Soprano is the highest voice and usually it is for female voice and Alto is usually also for woman's voice. Tenor and Bass are kinds of voices for male. 

Soprano : the term "soprano" refers to female singers but at times the term "male soprano" has been used by men who sing in the soprano vocal range using falseto vocal production instead of the modal voice.

Alto : alto" describes the second highest voice part in a four-parts chorus.

Tenor : type of male singing voice and is the highest male voice within the modal register.

Bass : a type of male singing voice and possesses the lowest vocal range of all vocal types.

Characters :
Soprano : Celine Dion, Charice

Alto : Taylor swift, Toni Braxton

Tenor : Andrea Bocelli, Michael JAckson, Il Divo

Bass : Scotty ( from Americal Idol ) 

Sunday, November 20, 2011


It is a form of vocal percussion primarily involving the art of producing drum beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using one's mouth, lips, tongue, and voice. It may also involve singing , vocal imitation of turntabolism, and the simulation of horns, strings, and other musical instruments. Beatboxing today is connected with hip hop culture, being one of "the elements", although it is not limited to hip hop music. 

World's record of beat boxing :
According to the Guinness World Records, the current record for the largest human beatbox ensemble involved 1,246 participants and was achieved by Vineeth Vincent and Christ University (India) in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, on 5 February 2011.

Character :
. Marcos Valle
. Michael Winslow
. the Fat boys
. Wise

Sunday, October 23, 2011

Hip Hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hop rap music or hip-hop music is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: Raping, DJing, Breaking or dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling and beatboxing. 
While often used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. The term hip-hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip-hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing, Breaking, Raping. 
Character :
. DJ Kool Herc
. Public enemy
. De La Soul
. DJ Hero

Characteristics : 
. Have DJ
. Raping
. Breaking
. Dancing
. Beatboxing

Country music

Country music is a popular American style that began in the Southern United states  in the 1920s.
The term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. The term country music is used today to describe many style and subgenres.
Harlan Howard stated "Country music is three chords and the truth."
Famous character :
. Venin Dalhart
. Roy Acuff
. Red Foley
. Jhonny Cash
. jim Reeves
. Willie nelson 

Modern country famous character :
. Miley Cyrus
. Taylor swift

Characteristic :
. Chord progression : Mostly I - IV - I - V(7) - I  
. Melody: Very catchy simple melodies - easy so people can sing along
. Lyrics: Usualy about failed loves, deep loves, travelling, loneliness, etc. in the form af a letter or as if you are talking to someone directly.

. Instrumentation: Mostly includes vocals, guitar, drums, bass, madolin, harmonica, banjo, dobro, and other folk instruments, 

. Vocals : Often harmonized especially at the chorus. Mostly, you will find it is harmonized with a 3rd either above or under melody.

Sunday, October 2, 2011

Blues music

Blues is the name given to both a musical forms and music genre that originated in African-American communities of primarily the "Deep South" of the United States at the end of the 19th century from spiritual, work songs,field holder , shouts, and rhymed simple narrative ballads

in blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock and roll is characterized by specific chord progressions, of which the 12 bar blues chord progression is the most common. 
The term " the blues" refers to the "blues devils" which mean melancholy and sadness  an early use of the term in this sense is found in George Colman's one-act farce Blue Devils (1798).

The basic 12-bar lyric framework of a blues composition is reflected by a standard harmonic progression of 12 bars in a 4/4 time signature. The blues chords associated to a 12 bar blues are typically a set of three different chords played over a 12-bar scheme.

The lyrics of early traditional blues verses probably often consisted of a single line repeated four times; it was only in the first decades of the 20th century that the most common current structure became standard: the so-called AAB pattern, consisting of a line sung over the four first bars, its repetition over the next four, and then a longer concluding line over the last bars.

Blues musical styles, forms (12-bar blues), melodies, and the blues scale have influenced many other genres of music, such as rock and roll, jazz, and popular music.

Sunday, September 25, 2011

Rock music

Rock music develop during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdoms and United states 

It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music

The style of Rock music are : rock and roll, Electric blues, and folk

Most influence instrument is electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with bass guitar and drums

Usually, rock is song-based music with a 4/4 beat utilizing a verse - chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define. rock lyrics have deal with a wide range of themes in addition to romantic love, blues and other 

Characters of Rock :

- Elvis Presley 
- Chubby Checker
- The beach boys 
- The Beatles 
- The D-men 
- The Everly Brothers 
- Eric Clapton 
- Joan Baez
- Bob Dylan 
- Jimi Hendrix
- The Eagles
- Prog-Rock band
- Jaco Pastorius
- David Bowie
- Led Zeppelin
- Stryper 
- Patti Smith 
- Deborah Harry 
- U2
- Linkin Park
- And other 

Short Time line :

. Emergence - Mid to late 1960s 
. The progression - late 1960s to mid 1970s
. Punk and its aftermath - mid 1970s to 1980s
. Alternative goes mainstream - the 1990s
. the new millennium - the 2000s

    Pop music

    Pop music is the abbreviation of Popular Music 

    Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented towards a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes. Hatch and Millward define pop music as "a body of music which is distinguishable from popular, jazz and folk musics"

    In popular music, the songs are variety which mean it is include the classical music, jazz music, rock music, and novelty songs. 

    The term "pop song," is first recorded as being used in 1926 in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country, blues, hillbilly and music. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from most other genres of popular music

    The characteristics of Pop music are : 

    - An aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology
    - An emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities
    - An emphasis on recording, production, and technology, over live performance
    - A tendency to reflect existing trends rather than progressive developments
    - Much pop music is intended to encourage dancing, or it uses dance-oriented beats or rhythms

    The main part of pop music is the song, it is often between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length, generally marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. 

    Instrument that are use :

    - Vocals
    - Electric guitar
    - Bass guitar 
    - Drums
    - Keyboards
    - Acoustic guitar
    - Piano
    - Synthesizer
    - Drum machine
    - Sequencer
    - Sampler 
    - And other

    Modern era

    Modern Era is about 1900 until now

    With the coming of the 20th century another evolution in the musical world emerged. While some of the early 20th century music can be seen as extensions of the late Romantic style, much of 20th century music can be seen as a rebellion.

    Composers created music freely and used sounds that went against the current grain. Twentieth century music can be described as being more refined, vague in form, delicate, and having a mysterious atmosphere.

    Twentieth century music is an era that is hard to define in terms of musical style. Th easy way to define 20th century music is it does not fit into the Romantic era's requirements. And because of its own expression and orchestral technique it does not fit into any other category but its own.

     In 20th century musical styles traditional forms and structures were broken up and recreated or composed using non-Western musical techniques and abstract ideas. Technology also became an important factor in the music making during this time period. Composers have been known to use recording tape as a compositional tool

    Electronically created sounds are used in combination with other electronic sounds or played together with traditional music instruments. Most recently, the use of computer technology has affected the world of music making. Ways in which computers currently alter the face of the music world are by manipulating the performance of instruments in real time.

    Wednesday, September 21, 2011

    Jazz Music

    Jazz is a musical style that origenated at the beginning of 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. Jazz music was born out of a confluence of African and European music traditions.

    The word "Jazz" began as a West Coast slang term and was first used to refer to music in Chicago at about 1915.

    The Jazz age are :
    . Swing - in 1930s - It belongs to the popular sing big bands.
    . Beginning of European jazz
    . Dixieland revival - in the late 1940s there was a revival of "Dixieland" music, harkening back to the original contrapuntal New Orleans style
    . Bebob - n the early 1940s bebop performers helped to shift jazz from danceable popular music towards a more challenging "musician's music.
    . Cool Jazz - By the end of the 1940s, the nervous energy and tension of bebop was replaced with a tendency towards calm and smoothness, with the sounds of cool jazz , which favoured long, linear melodic lines.
    . Hard Bob - Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from rythm and blues, gospel music, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing.
    . Modal Jazz - Modal jazz is a development beginning in the later 1950s which takes the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation.
    . Free Jazz - Free Jazz and the related form of avant great joke, broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of World music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing
    . Between 1960s and 1070s : Latin Jazz, Post Bop, Soul Jazz, Jazz fusion, Jazz funk, other trends
    . Between 1980s - 2010s : Traditionalist and experimental divide, Smooth Jazz, Acid Jazz, Nu Jazz, Jazz rap, Punk Jazz and Jazz core, M base 

    Wednesday, September 7, 2011

    Romantic Music

    Romantic music is a musicological and artistic term referring to aparticular period, theory, compositional practice, and cannon in Western music history, from about 1830 to 1910. 

    Romantic music as a movement evolved from the formats, genres and musical ideas established in earlier periods, such as the classical period, and went further in the name of expression and syncretism of different art-forms with music.

    Romantic music attempted to increase emotional expression and power to describe deeper truths or human feelings, while preserving but in many cases extending the formal structures from the classical period, in others, creating new forms that were deemed better suited to the new subject matter.
    Early Romantic ( 1800-1850 ) : Early Romantic composers of a slightly later generation included Franz Lizt, Felix Mendhelson , Federic Chopin, and Hector Barlioz.

    Late Romantic era ( 1850- 1900 ) : some composers created styles and forms associated with their national folk cultures. The notion that there were "German" and "Italian" styles had long been established in writing on music, but the late 19th century saw the rise of a nationalist Russian style , and also Czech, Finnish and French nationalist styles of composition.